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[转贴] 新冠肺炎认识与处理指南

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发表于 2020-2-9 20:17 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
老李教育日志(分享、咨询、文摘)
新冠肺炎(国家命名NCP,国际命名COVID-19)认识与处理指南
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这个是从网络收集到的最权威的课程讲座。
5段视频,是国家应急管理部培训中心制作。
内容涉及新冠肺炎的防治,涵盖个人上下班途中、工作、用餐、回家、锻炼、预防、防护、传播、监控等指导内容。
课件界面简洁,内容详实,具有权威性。
建议各位带着孩子,抽时间一起看一遍,必然受益良多。


https://m.qlchat.com/api/gos?target=%2Fwechat%2Fpage%2Fchannel-intro%3FchannelId%3D2000007868033223%26sourceNo%3Dapp&pre=%2Fwechat%2Fpage%2Frecommend


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 楼主| 发表于 2020-2-11 08:22 | 显示全部楼层
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-2-12 19:35 | 显示全部楼层
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-3-2 09:12 | 显示全部楼层
老李教育日志(分享、咨询、文摘)
The author of this coronavirus precautionary measures is James Robb, MD UC San Diego. It’s a really great read.

Subject: What I am doing for the upcoming COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic

Dear Colleagues, as some of you may recall, when I was a professor of pathology at the University of California San Diego, I was one of the first molecular virologists in the world to work on coronaviruses (the 1970s). I was the first to demonstrate the number of genes the virus contained. Since then, I have kept up with the coronavirus field and its multiple clinical transfers into the human population (e.g., SARS, MERS), from different animal sources.

The current projections for its expansion in the US are only probable, due to continued insufficient worldwide data, but it is most likely to be widespread in the US by mid to late March and April.

Here is what I have done and the precautions that I take and will take. These are the same precautions I currently use during our influenza seasons, except for the mask and gloves.:

1) NO HANDSHAKING! Use a fist bump, slight bow, elbow bump, etc.

2) Use ONLY your knuckle to touch light switches. elevator buttons, etc.. Lift the gasoline dispenser with a paper towel or use a disposable glove.

3) Open doors with your closed fist or hip - do not grasp the handle with your hand, unless there is no other way to open the door. Especially important on bathroom and post office/commercial doors.

4) Use disinfectant wipes at the stores when they are available, including wiping the handle and child seat in grocery carts.

5) Wash your hands with soap for 10-20 seconds and/or use a greater than 60% alcohol-based hand sanitizer whenever you return home from ANY activity that involves locations where other people have been.

6) Keep a bottle of sanitizer available at each of your home's entrances. AND in your car for use after getting gas or touching other contaminated objects when you can't immediately wash your hands.

7) If possible, cough or sneeze into a disposable tissue and discard. Use your elbow only if you have to. The clothing on your elbow will contain infectious virus that can be passed on for up to a week or more!

What I have stocked in preparation for the pandemic spread to the US:

1) Latex or nitrile latex disposable gloves for use when going shopping, using the gasoline pump, and all other outside activity when you come in contact with contaminated areas.

Note: This virus is spread in large droplets by coughing and sneezing. This means that the air will not infect you! BUT all the surfaces where these droplets land are infectious for about a week on average - everything that is associated with infected people will be contaminated and potentially infectious. The virus is on surfaces and you will not be infected unless your unprotected face is directly coughed or sneezed upon. This virus only has cell receptors for lung cells (it only infects your lungs) The only way for the virus to infect you is through your nose or mouth via your hands or an infected cough or sneeze onto or into your nose or mouth.

2) Stock up now with disposable surgical masks and use them to prevent you from touching your nose and/or mouth (We touch our nose/mouth 90X/day without knowing it!). This is the only way this virus can infect you - it is lung-specific. The mask will not prevent the virus in a direct sneeze from getting into your nose or mouth - it is only to keep you from touching your nose or mouth.

3) Stock up now with hand sanitizers and latex/nitrile gloves (get the appropriate sizes for your family). The hand sanitizers must be alcohol-based and greater than 60% alcohol to be effective.

4) Stock up now with zinc lozenges. These lozenges have been proven to be effective in blocking coronavirus (and most other viruses) from multiplying in your throat and nasopharynx. Use as directed several times each day when you begin to feel ANY "cold-like" symptoms beginning. It is best to lie down and let the lozenge dissolve in the back of your throat and nasopharynx. Cold-Eeze lozenges is one brand available, but there are other brands available.

I, as many others do, hope that this pandemic will be reasonably contained, BUT I personally do not think it will be. Humans have never seen this snake-associated virus before and have no internal defense against it. Tremendous worldwide efforts are being made to understand the molecular and clinical virology of this virus. Unbelievable molecular knowledge about the genomics, structure, and virulence of this virus has already been achieved. BUT, there will be NO drugs or vaccines available this year to protect us or limit the infection within us. Only symptomatic support is available.

I hope these personal thoughts will be helpful during this potentially catastrophic pandemic. You are welcome to share this email. Good luck to all of us! Jim

James Robb, MD FCAP
这种冠状病毒预防措施的作者是詹姆斯·罗布,医学博士圣地亚哥。这是一本很棒的读物。

主题:我为即将到来的COVID-19(冠状病毒)大流行做些什么

亲爱的同事,你们中的一些人可能还记得,当我是加州大学圣地亚哥分校的病理学教授时,我是世界上第一批从事冠状病毒的分子病毒学家之一(20世纪70年代)。我是第一个证明病毒所含基因数量的人。从那时起,我跟上了冠状病毒领域及其从不同动物来源向人类(如SARS、中东呼吸综合征)的多次临床转移。

由于全球数据持续不足,目前对美国扩张的预测还是可能的,但到3月中下旬和4月,美国很可能广泛出现。

这是我所做的,以及我采取和将采取的预防措施。这些是我目前在流感季节使用的预防措施,除了口罩和手套。

1) 无握手!使用拳头颠簸、轻微弓、肘部碰撞等。

2) 仅使用关节触摸灯开关。电梯按钮等。用纸巾提起汽油分配器或使用一次性手套。

3) 用紧握的拳头或臀部打开门 - 不要用手抓住把手,除非没有其他方法开门。在浴室和邮局/商业门尤其重要。

4) 在商店可用时使用消毒巾,包括擦拭购物车中的手柄和儿童座椅。

5) 用肥皂洗手10-20秒,和/或使用超过60%的酒精洗手液,每次你回家的任何活动,涉及其他人已经去过的地方。

6) 在每个入口都提供一瓶消毒剂。在得到汽油或触摸其他受污染物体后,在车内使用,当你不能立即洗手时。

7) 如有可能,咳嗽或打喷嚏进入一次性组织并丢弃。只有在需要时,才使用肘部。肘部的衣服将含有传染性病毒,可以传播长达一周或更长时间!

我为流感大流行蔓延到美国而储存的:

1) 乳胶或硝酸乳胶一次性手套,用于购物时,使用汽油泵,以及所有其他外部活动,当你接触到污染区域。

注意:这种病毒通过咳嗽和打喷嚏在大水滴中传播。这意味着空气不会感染你!但是,这些飞沫陆地的所有表面平均传染性约为一周,与感染者相关的所有表面都会受到污染,并可能传染。病毒在表面上,你不会被感染,除非你未受保护的脸被直接咳嗽或打喷嚏。这种病毒只有细胞受体的肺细胞(它只感染你的肺)病毒感染你的唯一方法是通过你的鼻子或嘴通过你的手或感染的咳嗽或打喷嚏到或进入你的鼻子或嘴。

2) 现在储备一次性手术口罩,并使用它们,以防止你触摸你的鼻子和/或嘴(我们触摸我们的鼻子/嘴90X/天不知道它!这是这种病毒感染你的唯一方法 - 它是肺部特异性的。面膜不会阻止直接打喷嚏的病毒进入你的鼻子或嘴 - 它只是防止你接触你的鼻子或嘴。

3) 现在储备洗手液和乳胶/硝酸盐手套(为您的家人获得合适的尺寸)。洗手液必须是酒精为基础的和大于60%的酒精是有效的。
4) 现在用锌糖储存起来。这些冠状病毒已被证明能有效阻止冠状病毒(和大多数其他病毒)在喉咙和鼻咽中繁殖。当你开始感到任何"冷样"症状开始时,每天按照指示使用几次。最好躺下,让鼻咽溶解在你的喉咙和鼻咽后面。冷埃兹龙舌兰是一个品牌可用,但还有其他品牌可用。

同许多人一样,我希望这一流行病得到合理的控制,但我个人认为不会。人类以前从未见过这种与蛇有关的病毒,也没有抵御它的内部防御。全世界都在为了解这种病毒的分子和临床病毒学做出巨大努力。关于这种病毒的基因组学、结构和毒性的令人难以置信的分子知识已经实现。但是,今年将没有药物或疫苗来保护我们或限制我们体内的感染。只有症状支持可用。

我希望这些个人的想法在这次潜在的灾难性大流行中会有所帮助。欢迎您分享此电子邮件。祝大家好运!吉姆

詹姆斯·罗布,医学博士
 楼主| 发表于 2020-3-2 11:47 | 显示全部楼层
老李教育日志(分享、咨询、文摘)


从SIR模型可以可能到,降低日接触率,提高日治愈率,当感染的速度低于治愈速度之后,传染病就被控制住了。

降低降低日接触率的几个手段就是:
发现病患及时隔离,
增强防护措施降低接触率。
所以,预防传染病的传播,隔离和做好防护非常非常重要。

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